Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Compositae) has long been used in traditional Korean, Chinese, Japanese medicine to treat various immune-related diseases. Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) has been used in various studies with promising results. A series of studies have demonstrated that Chrysanthemum indicum possesses antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the anticancer activity of Chrysanthemum indicum, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The following study performed in rats with human cells showed CIE inhibited proliferation of human heptocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. CIE induced apoptosis which is cell death of human HCC in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry. The cancer-specific selectivity shown in their study suggests that the Chrysanthemum Indicum plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4538-46.
Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human HCC MHCC97H cells with Chrysanthemum indicum extract.
AIM: To investigate the effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on inhibition of proliferation and on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms, in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) MHCC97H cell line. METHODS: Viable rat hepatocytes and human endothelial ECV304 cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay, respectively, as normal controls. The proliferation of MHCC97H cells was determined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of MHCC97H cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), mitochondrial membrane potential with rhodamine 123 and cell cycle with PI in MHCC97H cells. Apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and cell cycle proteins, including P21 and CDK4, were measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: CIE inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and human endothelial cells. CIE induced apoptosis of MHCC97H cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. CIE arrested the cell cycle in the S phase by increasing P21 and decreasing CDK4 protein expression. CONCLUSION: CIE exerted a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested the cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells without an effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity shown in this study suggests that the CI plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human cancer.
This study showed CIE anti-inflammatory effects and examines the pathway.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21;122(3):473-7. Epub 2009 Feb 3.
Chrysanthemum indicum Linné extract inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing NF-kappaB and MAPKs activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):334-7.
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné.
This research is still in the beginning phases and if you have liver cancer, please consult with a doctor about your treatment.
For information on teas and diet that may serve a complementary treatment or serve as a measure for those at risk of liver cancer see